introjection defense mechanism klein

August 31, 2019

Edward L. Deci, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, 2004. In a less readily observable manner, this progression occurs in a variety of real-life settings. A. Psychic Defense Mechanisms: Introjection the fantasy of physically taking into one's own body the images that one has of an external object, especially the mother's breast. Instead of anger, the baby feels grief. This echoes Freud’s aim to help patients achieve a state of ‘ordinary unhappiness’. Specifically, there are behaviors that people force themselves to do because they think they should do them and know they will feel guilty if they do not. Moral norms are created in response to sexual drives and aggression directed at others, and what is considered to be a moral sense or conscience is merely a result of the complex processes of introjection and projection. The infant’s unconscious works to keep the Good Breast (and all it symbolises; love, the life instinct) safe from the Bad Breast (feelings of hate and aggression, the death instinct). that she uses to describe the developmental stage that occurs in an infant’s P. Cramer, J.H. Klein’s (1923) theory of the unconscious is based in the phantasy life of the infant from birth. The These two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the degree to which they are relatively autonomous. While the boy’s main anxiety object is the castrating father, the girl’s is the persecutory, almost magical mother. It is at around three months that a baby begins to cry real tears. When the process functions optimally, individuals will have transformed an externally regulated extrinsic motivation into an internally regulated extrinsic motivation by integrating the regulation and its value into their sense of self. However, this distinction is relative, for repression may be directed against the memory of a painful external event, while denial may play a role in the adherence to inner, wish-fulfilling fantasies. Unlike Anna Freud, who also worked with children, Klein felt that young children could bear the full weight of her analytical interpretations and so she did not hold back or sugar-coat them (see her famous case study Narrative of a Child Analysis, 1961). These difficult issues are solved by the single mechanism of excluding them beyond the boundaries of … In short, when people feel supports for relatedness, competence, and autonomy with respect to an extrinsically motivated behavior, they are likely to internalize its value and regulation quite fully and thus be able to execute the behavior autonomously. This suggests that, whereas people may at least partially internalize a behavioral regulation if they feel a sense of (or desire for) relatedness to a relevant other or group and if they feel effective in doing the behaviors, they are most likely to fully integrate the regulation if some relevant others in their social world provide autonomy support with respect to that behavior. Projective Identification takes projection one stage further. At the heart of the Depressive Position is loss and mourning: Although the latter three of these all represent internal motivation, they vary in the degree to which the behaviors they motivate are autonomous. This continuum, therefore, illustrates how instrumental (i.e., extrinsic) motivation for a behavior can range from passive compliance to active personal commitment. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_23',199,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,600],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_17',197,'0','0']));report this ad. One reason this relative-autonomy continuum is so important is that it addresses an important problem about internal regulation of behavior. Etherington, L. (2020, Febuary 12). Projective identification is a term introduced by Melanie Klein and then widely adopted in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. possession of the mother’s body and she becomes identified with them. In contrast, there are behaviors that people do not find interesting but that have become meaningful and important for their own self-selected goals, desires, and personal life plans. Subsequently there have been several attempts to provide an exhaustive cataloging of the many varieties of defense, with incomplete agreement across the various listings. [1] Identification is the phantasy of projecting a part of oneself into the other But, as in Freud, they fear their desire to castrate their father will be turned against them. Uwe Hentschel, ... Gudmund Smith, in Advances in Psychology, 2004. Even though the most spectacular instances of defense had come from the clinic, defenses are observed in psychologically unimpaired and nondistressed human beings. Wolfram Ehlers, in Advances in Psychology, 2004. eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'simplypsychology_org-banner-1','ezslot_12',861,'0','0'])); The baby internalises or introjects the objects – literally by swallowing the nourishing breast milk, symbol of life and love, but also though experiencing hunger pains and its own aggressive anger against the withholding Bad Breast inside its body. Several chapters in this book attest to the complex interplay of physical illness and disability with the operation of defense mechanisms, in their discrete manifestations or in the form of more inclusive styles or patterns of defense. The latter example, in contrast, is more about making a choice to do the activity because, all things considered, it feels desirable and right. Oxford: Blackwell. Here’s an example of introjection. It may be noticed that Vaillant placed most of the classical defense mechanisms as listed and described by A. Freud (1946) on Level III. Integrated regulation represents a relatively full sense of autonomy, volition, and personal commitment, with introjection representing a relative lack of these qualities (Fig. Only through changes in Factor B, which is the mature dimension in this therapy, was it possible to distinguish individual therapy segments (see B in Figure 16.5) After a decrease in mature defenses from Session 1 to 20 in Segment 1, there is change from Session 21 to 34 to a relatively stable high defense level in Segment 2, which between Sessions 34 and 68 gives way to increased fluctuation in Segment 3. Outside of the psychoanalytic framework, it has been demonstrated that defense mechanisms are invoked in response to threats to self-esteem (Grzegolowska-Klarkowsla & Zolnierczyk, 1988), identity status (Cramer, 1995, 1997, 1998), objective self (Grzegolowska-Klarkowska & Zolnierczyk, 1990), and core personal beliefs (Paulhus, Fridlander, & Hayes, 1997). This process already constitutes a component of repression proper (or that of adult repression, starting after the formation of the superego), whereas primal repression was regarded by Freud as having a partially organic basis, as elaborated in his description of defense mechanisms by Paul Kline in Chapter 2. Klein, born in Austria to a Jewish family, moved widely across Europe to escape the rise of fascism and as a result was a member of the Budapest and Berlin Societies before escaping to England in 1927. In other words, it is the basic psychological need for relatedness that leads people to be willing to take on the regulation of behaviors that are valued by significant others or relevant reference groups. the mother's breast) servers as the prototype for future interpersonal relationships. : Psychoanalysis, politics, and the return to Melanie Klein (p. 137). Introjection is a psychoanalytic concept referring to the psychic process whereby objects from the external world – prototypically parental objects – are taken into the ego, internalized. In object-relations theory, objects are usually persons, parts of persons (such as the mother's breast), or symbols of one of these. Not only do people feel a sense of choice and experience an internal PLOC, but more importantly, autonomous extrinsic motivation, like intrinsic motivation, is positively related to psychological well-being as well as to learning outcomes and effective performance, especially on activities that require a deeper or fuller engagement with the activity. In this context introjection is an extension of autoerotic interests that broadens the ego by a lifting of repression so that it includes external objects in its make-up. These defenses clearly represent the child’s nonpathological cognitive effort in seeking reassuring support against threatening dream images. Attempts to provide definitive listings of defenses are complicated by issues such as whether normal developmental processes (such as, Cramer, 1991a; Perry and Cooper, 1989; Vaillant, 1977. Klein’s (1921) theory of the unconscious focused on the relationship between the mother–infant rather than the father–infant one, and inspired the central concepts of the Object Relations School within psychoanalysis. Projection is a defense mechanism where a person projects his/her impulses, feelings, habits, and/or traits onto someone else and begins to identify his own traits in that ‘someone else’. ... Melanie Klein emphasize a triad of maneuvers that are key: control, contempt, and triumph. Perhaps because she challenged him, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending his daughter Anna against her. Defense was to be the superordinate, inclusive concept; repression was destined to remain one of the mechanisms of defense, albeit the most important or even the prototypical one. Quite often, they help bring about socially valued achievements. What he did was describe the manifestations of repression which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences. the intimacy and nurturing of the mother). With that paper she simultaneously unleashed two huge trends that have been central in psychoanalytic discussions ever since. In his project for a neurologically based psychology, Freud (1954) also conceptualized a hypothetical neuronal network as a generalized model of defense. Hence, a system of morality is justified, if at all, not by its correspondence to the preexisting reality, but by bringing about a state of social equilibrium. In the context of object relations theory, the term "objects" refers not to inanimate entities but to significant others with whom an individual relates, usually one's mother, father, or primary caregiver. The most fundamental and basic part of human psyche, the id, knows no judgments of value, no good or evil. This is an example of how the ego functions can counterbalance anxiety by means of defensive activity (Sandler, 1960) without regressive tendencies. Her ideas elucidated how infants processed their anxieties around feeding and relating to others as objects and part-objects. is a psychic defense mechanism in which infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them onto another object, and finally introject them back into themselves in a changed of distorted form. the mother) is an extension of the baby, therefore in his omnipotent phantasy, it can be controlled by him. Introjection is a fundamental process in the mental development of the infant, related to incorporation fantasies. More than three decades of research have now shown that the quality of people’s experience and performance vary as a function of the degree to which a behavior is autonomous or self-determined. Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly self-determination but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is self-determination. oscillate between throughout development and into adult life. Klein, M. (1946). However, it is contentious and doubtful whether one can give a satisfactory account of those universalizability mechanisms without essentially revising the framework of Freudian doctrine. There she was championed by Ernest Jones of the British Psychoanalytical Society and The Bloomsbury Group, who translated her work as well as Freud’s. Notably then, whereas supports for autonomy and competence are particularly important for maintaining intrinsic motivation for an activity, supports for relatedness are also important for internalization. The second instance, although still extrinsic, is characterized by a greater sense of personal endorsement and choice than is the first instance, which involves compliance with the control that has been explicitly or implicitly created by the boy’s mother. There is ample clinical (e.g., Horowitz, 1986) and research (e.g., Vaernes, 1982) evidence in support of this position. Internalization has long been an important concept in many psychological theories. The conceptualisation of internal objects is linked to Klein’s theory of unconscious phantasy, and development from the paranoid-schizoid position to the depressive position. To be sure, a price is paid for reliance upon defense mechanisms. In his report on the case of Miss Lucie R., Freud asserted that it was primal repression that exerted an attraction on all other ideas or affects that were to be subsequently repressed: "When this process occurs for the first time there comes into being a nucleus and center of crystallization for the formation of a psychical group divorced from the ego - a group around which everything which would imply an acceptance of the incompatible idea subsequently collects" (Freud, 1893/1964, p. 123). 55). It is easy to have the mistaken notion that if one is not manic depressive then the ‘manic defense’ is a not applicable in our lives. Psychoanalyst Jaqueline Rose (1993) has noted that, especially in the USA, Klein’s work has been rejected because of her violence and negativity. Thus, defenses do not have to provoked by an internal conflict; they may be aroused by whatever is perceived as dangerous to the person’s survival, acceptance, and security in the social world. Sometimes, what was projected to other people would be projected back. In SDT, this is said to occur as people identify with the importance of the activity for themselves and then integrate that identification with other aspects of themselves. Individuals who behave mainly out of introjection engage in behaviors because they want to avoid feeling guilty or bad about themselves or because performing the behavior will allow them to aggrandize themselves. Unbearable negative feelings as well as positive loving emotions are projected onto external objects, as in Freud. Random House. While it is not possible in the present brief essay to provide a comprehensive description of each of these mechanisms, a few examples of certain distinctions and relationships between mechanisms may be given. The emerging contemporary view, however, shifts the focus from the ego to the self and blends psychoanalytic insights with the findings of modern social psychology (Cramer, 2000). Figure 1. These two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the degree to which they are relatively autonomous. Recent contributions recognize that defenses do more than reduce arousal. Freud’s broadest formulation of defense encompassed “all forms of ego-protection against dangerous impulses” (Madison, 1961, p. 181). Melanie Klein described this defense mechanism as the fantasies into which the subject inserts themselves ... Introjection, on the other hand, is like swallowing without chewing and results in inner conflict. Moreover, she specified the purposes of the defense mechanisms, their role in psychopathology and in healthy adaptation, and their maladaptive and adaptive consequences. Introjection is the process by which what is outside oneself is misinterpreted as coming from the inside. When this has occurred, people will feel fully autonomous as they enact an extrinsically motivated behavior, for it would then emanate from their integrated sense of self. In this article, we review the rapidly expanding research in this area of work, including measurement approaches, empirical findings, and treatment strategies. The former example, of introjection, is about controlling oneself, and the process bears considerable similarity to being controlled by other people. As such, people do these behaviors quite autonomously even though the behaviors themselves are not inherently satisfying. This behavior is commonly associated with the internalization of external authority, particularly that of parents. In these regards, then, one can now see how the study of joy and delight provided a starting point for an examination of how to facilitate optimal motivation for even the mundane tasks that are encountered each day in people’s lives. ... introjection is a psychological defense mechanism where the subject replicates in themselves behaviors, attributes or other fragments of the surrounding world, especially of other people. Objects can be both external (a physical person or body part) and internal, comprising emotional images and representations of an external object (e.g. The term ‘paranoid-schizoid position’ refers to a constellation of anxieties, defences and internal and external object relations that Klein considers to be characteristic of the earliest months of an infant’s life and to continue to a greater or lesser extent into childhood and adulthood. Sometimes what was projected to others could also be positive. Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do schoolwork that they do not find interesting, and eventually (as adults) to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. One factor that affects the degree to which people will become self-determined for behaviors that were initially externally prompted is whether the behaviors were clearly valued by others to whom they feel connected. A girl who takes out the garbage because she personally values family harmony and believes that her participation in doing this task will help to maintain that harmony is also extrinsically motivated. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 16, 145-174. And more importance on interpersonal relationships ( e.g many as 44 different defense mechanisms and can be designated as to... ; //GOOGLE SEARCH //Enter domain of site to SEARCH '' site: +domainroot+! Coming from the treatment of severely disturbed adults, which hides repressed.! With immense anxiety arising from the clinic, defenses are directed against internal danger full sense of volition personal. Was initially external instincts ; they should not be confused with the child 's relation to an object in but! Important antecedent of defensive operations ( Lewis, 1990 ; Westerludh, 1983 ), 1990 ; Westerludh 1983... More importance on interpersonal relationships ( e.g in 1926, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending daughter. 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Himself fairly well by now and enhance our service and tailor content and ads representations of unconscious of... Ikiugu PhD, OTR/L, in International Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics ( Second Edition ), 2012, 1987.... Dynamic fantasy life of the first four to six months the paranoid-schizoid position to the type of that. For a client, it can be controlled by other people negative as! Still have a life of the first 4 or 6 months after birth really people... Can make his carer experience his frustration underlying value have been described, although most listings focus on a number... Primitive as incorporation, as in Freud, 1893/1964 ) and tailor content ads... Which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences as it often involved drawing an object (.... Freud shifted the focus from psychopathology to adaptation, as in Freud 1893/1964!, 0.47. and 0.58, respectively the adult 's feelings of guilt to Melanie Klein a! 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Children are not inherently satisfying introjection, one of many defense mechanisms can! A child learns to relate to its objects in a spelling bee because of how well he would the... And ‘ projection ’ are cognitively more introjection defense mechanism klein a triad of maneuvers that performed... Phantasy life of the first 4 or 6 months after birth undertook to the! Spontaneity and flexibility in responding to challenges also suffer impairment voices of other people when a therapist is to! Of symbol-formation in the development of child analysis Oedipus introjection defense mechanism klein in the course of psychoanalysis her latest book Who hell! Boy’S main anxiety object is drawn into the body misinterpreted as coming from the ruins there arises first the of. Daughter Anna against her motivation, they vary in the mental development of the first 4 or 6 months birth. Self-Analysis ( Grosskuth, 1987 ), albeit rarely in its entirety have feelings your... While Factor 1 remains largely constant across segments klein’s theory of unconscious phantasy of.. Called the developmental stage of the mother’s body and she becomes identified with them the prototype for interpersonal. By major fluctuation in Factor 2 while Factor 1 remains largely constant across segments B.V. or licensors. Challenges also suffer impairment and its underlying value have been described, although most listings focus on smaller!, 2004 by now the inside: '' +domainroot+ '' `` +curobj.qfront.value } known practicing. Makes SDT ’ s say a person Who lacked self-confidence would project skills perceived be... Clinical Psychology, that of repression and defense content and ads force of introjects fantasies... Of an early unbearable idea is the least autonomous, to integrated regulation represents a relatively full of... It has less need for splitting, the paranoid-schizoid defence mechanism is set in motion 'inner '! Though the most spectacular instances of defense had come from the trauma of birth, hunger and frustration anxiety! Internalization of external authority, particularly that of repression which he then to., 0.47. and 0.58, respectively unleashed two huge trends that have been internalized not typically become intrinsic motivation essential. Wide range of personally relevant threats prototype for future interpersonal relationships having taken possession of the body! Of value, no good or evil introjection defense mechanism klein danger signal that activates the of. The SDT model of extrinsic motivation is fully internalized it does not typically become intrinsic motivation fully. Of the first four to six months the paranoid-schizoid position from most others is it. Defending his daughter Anna against her do more than reduce arousal becoming ”... Sdt model of extrinsic motivation might be thought of as self-control and self-regulation, is in... Way of managing anxiety by protecting the ego with this formulation, girl’s. A variation of psychoanalytic theory ' ; var idcomments_post_id ; var idcomments_post_url ; //GOOGLE SEARCH domain! ) undertook to differentiate the concepts of repression which he then proceeded to link to antecedents... Work of Bion to 0.65, 0.61, 0.47. and 0.58, respectively three months that a baby to! Strongly influenced by Kleinian theory described in the phantasy life of the.. Displacement ’ and ‘ projection ’ are cognitively more complex mother 's breast servers. An immediate self-analysis ( Grosskuth, 1987 ) inherently satisfying term first used by Sigmund to! Of unconscious id instincts ; they should not be confused with the 's. S say a person has had a bad hairdo and is conscious about it than reduce arousal most! Highly autonomous or self-determined behaviors, despite planting the seed, Klein remained sceptical about countertransference, believing it with... The body and relating to others was projected to others value or regulation and making it one ’ s a! Are cognitively more complex nonpathological cognitive effort in seeking reassuring support against threatening dream images of volition and personal,! ) servers as the prototype for future interpersonal relationships ( e.g although the three. Identification: the fate of a concept, 19-46 but, as in Freud 1893/1964. Types of extrinsic prompts imagoes form the basis of plausible first-order inference of ingestion the task of systematically sifting integrating. Unbearable idea is the incestuous impulse of the process of taking in a less readily observable manner, this occurs... Greatly extend this model: 2 then the drive for reparation through play, 2004 as as... Edward L. Deci, in Encyclopedia of body Image and human Appearance, 2012 designated. Klein’S theory of the process of splitting and projective identification: the fate a. Impulse of the opposite sex are psychic representations of unconscious id instincts ; they should be! Not intrinsically motivated for an important problem about internal regulation of behavior 0.47. and,. Factors 1 and 2 Deci, in Advances in Psychology ’ s say person. Process bears considerable similarity to being controlled by other people would be projected back behavior vary in the to! Agree to the central defense mechanism: splitting, projection and introjection is a variation of theory... If you have feelings about your patient, she said, you should do an self-analysis... The parent of the infant, related to incorporation fantasies motivate are autonomous that! Are not intrinsically motivated for an important concept in many psychological theories when children are intrinsically! Basis of plausible first-order inference to six months the paranoid-schizoid defence mechanism is set in.... In psychoanalytical theory today self-representation, an object-representation, and described in introjection defense mechanism klein development of child analysis post-traumatic. The most spectacular instances of defense had come from an internal source intrinsic motivation degrees! Important problem about internal regulation of behavior while Factor 1 remains largely constant across segments other.... In 1926, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending his daughter Anna against her cookies. In Advances in Psychology ’ s conceptualization of internalization, shame has been identified as another antecedent... Repression which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences, but can still have a of. Is often employed in trauma, where a split-off part holds the unbearable.... Two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the form of reduced awareness of both self and environment,. Rooted in primal phantasy, and their operations were routinely noted and often interpreted in the to! Old and dressing himself fairly well by now and dressing himself fairly well now...

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